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14. Modal Verbs

- can

- could

- may

- might

- shall

- should

- will

- would

- must

- ought to

- dare

- need (modal and lexical)

  • Modal in the past

Must have been- musiało być

Possibility and uncertainty in the past is expressed by modal in perfect aspect: modal + have – III f

Must- She must have been beautiful girl when she was young.

Can- You can’t have lost it.

You might / could have told me.

They might/could have killed you.


Can’t have III f = Couldn’t have III f


I can play the piano- ability

I could play the piano when I was 5.-potential ability

Once I was able to play for 5 hours.

  • Used to, would

    • used to-universal, state and action

    • would-repeated action

1.Harry used to be a cigarette smoker.-past state

2.He didn’t use to worry about his health.-past activity

3.He would come home drunk.-repeated action in the past.

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